1 The article explores the origins of the concept of democracy.
2 One small explosion set off a chain reaction, causing massive damage.
3 The confusion probably stemmed from a lack of communication.
4 The proposed new tax could have major consequences for larger families.
5 The disastrous events of 2003 gave rise to a widespread sense of disillusionment.
6 The judge explained that there were precedents for his decision.

1 De Routa's work in the 1970s influenced on / to / - the development of computer science.
2 The acid seemed to have no affect / effect whatsoever on the plastic.
3 Everyone hoped for a positive outcome upon / off / to the meeting between the two governments.
4 The reason for / to / of the failure of the project was a lack of funding.
5 The impact of global warming for / on / to the polar ice caps is now understood more clearly.
6 The journalist wondered what particular ending / end the goverment had in mind when it decided to build a national tennis academy.

1 There are some interesting PhD theses on water resources in the library.
2 What was your main criterion in designing your survey?
3 She was interested in a strange phenomenon connected with comets.
4 The hypotheses were never proved, as the data were incomplete.

1 We must never accept the notion that intelligence is connected to race.
2 The task of choosing an analytical framework is an important stage in any research.
3 The book expresses his viewpoint on the role of the United Nations in times of war.
4 Tannen has always made her stance on gender and language use very clear.
5 Consumers have different perceptions of what low price and high quality mean.
6 The report laid out a new model of family healthcare which changed everything.
7 Physicists developed the concept of dark matter to explain certain observations.

1 autonomy
2 the humanities
3 profound
4 thinking and understanding
5 moral
6 grounding

Collocation in English falls into a number of different categories. In this article, I should like to draw a distinction between 'ordinary' collocations and those that are so fixed that they can be called idioms. Although my main focus is on 'ordinary' collocations, I shall also to some extent take idioms into consideration too. I plan to raise a number of questions about learning collocations in a foreign or second language. I shall attempt to answer these questions by making reference to work of the leading writers in the field. My intention is to make a strong case for a more intensive focus on collocation in the language learning process. I shall also touch on issues such as pronunciation.

1 Assess the significance of a factor
2 Argue something very convincingly
3 Draws an analogy
4 Lend support to an argument
5 Put forward an argument
6 Hold firmly to a belief
7 Draws attention to a new trend
8 Lays emphasis on one factor
9 Disagree profoundly with someone
10 Draws a conclusion

1 This paper proposes / presents the case for the complete revision of the theory.
2 Recent research hints / explains/ suggests that Jackson's theory of economic development is flawed.
3 The author of the book adopts / adapts / affects an  unusual position on the topic.
4 The writer of the article explains / states / declares his opinion very clearly.
5 The article concludes by briefly / shortly precisely summarising the main points that the author wishes to put across.
6 The writer does / draws / creates some interesting parallels between life now and life in the Middle Ages.
7 I keep / take / hold firmly to my belief in the importance of basic human rights.
8 The book rises / arises / raises some key questions but fails to deal with them in a satisfactory manner.


AWL sentences

H-antigens into sugar chains of porcine gastric mucins, as revealed by lectin blotting and mass spectroscopy analysis of the sugars.

Oligosaccharides from CD43 and CD45 of CEM cells latently infected with HIV-1 were chemically analyzed.

Consistent with our previous results, we show that HIV-1 infection results in accumulation of exposed lactosamine residues, oligosaccharides recognized by galectin-1 on cell surface glycoproteins.

Fucα1-2 Gal linkages, or H-antigens, constitute histo-blood group antigens and are involved in various physiological processes.

It has been well established that Galectin-1 (GAL1), a β-galactoside-binding protein, regulates the viability of lymphoid cells.

The fraction of cells that died in response to galectin-1 exceeded the fraction of infected cells, indicating that death of uninfected cells occurred.

These antibodies, were initially produced in few individuals that acquired random mutations inactivating the corresponding genes and eliminating α-gal epitopes or Neu5Gc, which became nonself antigens.

Significantly, PP14 reacts with N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) as was also found for members of the galectin family, such as the potent immunoregulatory protein, galectin-1.

These antibodies further induced rapid, effective immune responses against virus antigens, thus preventing infections from reaching lethal stages.

This was demonstrated by preferential binding to fetuin as compared with its desialylated variant asialofetuin (ASF) and by using free α2,6- versus α2,3-sialylated forms of LacNAc in competitive inhibition and direct solid-phase binding assays.


Review of "SHREK"

「scholastic shrek book」の画像検索結果

This fairy tale was very interesting.
Shrek, the main character, was an ogre and had lived in swamp.
He liked the quite swamp.
One day, there became noisy, because a lot of fairy tale characters were gathering.
They were forced out from Lord Farquaad's castle.
Shrek got angry and met Lord Frequaad to took back his "quite" swamp.
Shrek promised Lord Frequaad that Shrek rescued Princess Fiona from the dragon to take back the swap.
Shrek went to a dark castle where Princess Fiona and the dragon were, then rescued her.
He was liking her and they got married.
An ending of this story was happy. 



I'm Kento from Kagoshima Prefecture.
I have belonged to Department of Health Science and studied Glycobiology.
Glycobiology is sugar chain sciences.
When you heard "sugar", you could think that sugar is sweet.
However, "sugar chains" are not sweet.
Recently, researchers have discovered sugar chains are important for our body.